thelandmarkjuliuscaesar
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Cover   i
Other Books in the Landmark Series   ii
Title   iii
Copyright   iv
Contents  
     The Landmark Julius Caesar   v
     Web Essays   vi
Editors’ Preface to the Web Essays   ix
About the Editors   x
E  Caesar, Man of Letters   1
Debra L. Nousek, University of Western Ontario
F  Caesar the Politician   6
Martin Jehne, Technische Universita╠łt Dresden
G  Caesar and Pompey   13
Dominic Machado, Wake Forest University
H  The Legacy of Rome’s Wars   19
Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University
I  The Fall of the Republic   25
Judy E. Gaughan, Colorado State University, Pueblo
J  The Legitimacy of Caesar’s Wars   33
Erich S. Gruen, University of California, Berkeley
K  Gaul in Caesar’s Time   40
Olivier Büchsenschütz, CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure
L  Oppida: Towns in Caesar’s World   44
Ian Ralston, University of Edinburgh
M  Romans, Germans, and Germania   48
Maureen Carroll, University of Sheffield
N  Caesar on Britain   52
Tom Moore, Durham University
O  The Mediterranean State System   57
Arthur M. Eckstein, University of Maryland
P  Late Republican Provincial Administration   63
Nathan Rosenstein, Ohio State University
Q  The Roman Army Camp   68
Duncan B. Campbell, University of Glasgow
R  The Rules of War   73
Josh Levithan, Independent Scholar
S  Military Engineering and Sieges   79
Duncan B. Campbell, University of Glasgow
T  The Economics of War   84
Nathan Rosenstein, Ohio State University
U  The Commercialization of War   88
Clare Rowan, University of Warwick
V  Military Logistics   92
Nathan Rosenstein, Ohio State University
W  War and Geographical Knowledge   97
Richard J. A. Talbert, University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill
X  Caesar the General and Leader   102
Lukas De Blois, Radboud University, Nijmegen
Y  Civil War Strategies   109
Arthur M. Eckstein, University of Maryland
Z  Patterns of Roman Land Warfare   114
Jonathan P. Roth, San José State University
AA  Caesar at Sea   125
Nicolle Hirschfeld, Trinity University
BB  The Chronology of Caesar’s Campaigns   131
Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University
John T. Ramsey, University of Illinois at Chicago
CC  The Roman Commentarius and Caesar’s
Commentaries   203
Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University 
DD  Caesar the Historian   210
Christopher B. Krebs, Stanford University
EE  Caesar’s Portrait of “Caesar”   214
Keith Fairbank, Brown University
FF  Caesar the Ethnographer   223
Hester Schadee, University of Exeter
GG  The Gallic War as a Work of Literature   229
Debra L. Nousek, University of Western Ontario
HH  The Gallic War as a Work of Propaganda   236
Alexa Jervis, Buckley School, New York
II  The Literary Art of the Civil War   241
Luca Grillo, University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill

JJ  The Civil War as a Work of Propaganda   246
Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University
KK  The Cultural Legacy of Caesar’s Commentaries   255
Debra L. Nousek, University of Western Ontario
LL  The Origins of the Corpus of Caesar’s Works   260
Jan-Felix Gaertner, University of Cologne
MM  The Non-Caesarian War Books   265
Jan-Felix Gaertner, University of Cologne
NN  Editing Caesar   271
Cynthia Damon, University of Pennsylvania
OO  After Caesar   275
Hester Schadee, University of Exeter
PP  Caesar’s Invasions of Britain   282
Duncan B. Campbell, University of Glasgow
QQ  The Siege of Alesia   285
Duncan B. Campbell, University of Glasgow
RR  The Conquest of Uxellodunum   288
Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University
SS  Trench Warfare at Dyrrachium   294
Duncan B. Campbell, University of Glasgow
TT  From Defeat at Dyrrachium to Victory at
Pharsalus   297
Gregory S. Bucher, University of Maryland
UU  Alexandria   304
Kurt A. Raaflaub, Brown University
Bibliography   311
A Note from the Editors about the Web Essays
Kurt A. Raaflaub and Robert B. Strassler

The Web essays published here are an integral part of The Landmark Julius Caesar.
The Contents section shows how these essays fit into the plan of the entire work. The
printed volume, published in December 2017, contains an introduction on Caesar’s life
and works; a detailed chronological summary of the events covered in the complete
corpus of Caesar’s works; a new translation of these works with brief chapter
summaries and explanatory notes; four appendices that offer brief biographies of
persons who recur frequently in these works and explain elementary matters such as
Roman time and date counting, Roman units of currency and measurements, and the
organization of the Roman army; a list of ancient authors cited in the volume, a
glossary, bibliography, and a detailed index.

The corpus of Caesar’s works comprises eight books of the Gallic War, three books of
the
Civil War, and three individual war narratives by unknown authors who were
probably officers in Caesar’s army and thus participated in the events and provide a
different perspective on Caesar the general and leader. To emphasize the coherence of
the entire corpus, we have numbered the books in sequence, with the Gallic war of
58–50
B.C.E. covered by Books 1–8 of The Landmark Julius Caesar, the civil war of 49
and 48 by Books 9–11, wars in Egypt, Anatolia and other parts of the Roman empire in
47 by Book 12 (
Alexandrian War), the second round of the civil wars in 46 by Book 13
(
African War), and the last round of the civil wars in 45 by Book 14 (Spanish War).

We have taken advantage of the opportunities offered by the Internet which, unlike
printed books, knows no page limitations. We asked experts in various fields to write
compact essays on issues that we hope will help the readers gain a deeper
understanding of the world in which Caesar lived and acted, of his life and career, of
the structure of the Roman state and government, of multiple aspects of Roman
warfare, of various aspects of Caesar's writings, and of defining episodes described in
his works. These essays, we repeat, form an integral part of
The Landmark Julius 
Caesar and, as such, are cited throughout the footnotes in the printed volume and the
Web essays. Their publication on the website makes them available to all readers who
are interested; they can be downloaded and printed for personal use. We hope that
many readers will take advantage of this opportunity.
Contents
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File updated January 2018: see copyright page for changes